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发帖时间:2021-06-15 02:22:43

If so, an inventory of digital assets is required. Where are a company’s crown jewels and how are they protected? Again, do not assume they are protected by default. Weak credentials, security misconfigurations and lack of knowledge about what is at risk are blind spots that can be fixed.

The AV software will not have any distractions. That said, it remains possible that sensors will have issues in classifying objects, and that might be considered similar to human drivers’ visual distractions. As the technology of sensors advance, this will cease to be a factor for the AV software driver, however.

SpeedingSpeeding is a leading cause of human crashes and accounts for 32% of fatality crashes and about 20% of all crashes. Speeding will not be allowed in the AV software driver and should not be a factor in AV crashes.

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DUIDriving under influence includes two categories: alcohol and drug impaired driving. Crashes from alcohol impaired driving have been tracked for 40+ years. Drug impaired driving has little data available, but NHTSA has started investigating this problem.

Alcohol impaired driving remains a major factor in causing crashes, but it has declined over the last 35 years. In the last five years alcohol intoxication has been a factor in around 20% of all crashes compared to around 35% in 2010 and over 50% in mid 1980s.

Impaired driving is not applicable in AV software driver. The closest to impaired driving is successful cyberattacks. Cybersecurity protection will be a difficult issue for AVs and some success is likely. If the auto industry implements the emerging  cybersecurity standards, this should not be a factor.

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Reaction timeThe reaction time of human drivers depend on driving experience and many individual factors. Driver distraction issues will lower the reaction time of human drivers. The AV software driver will have better reaction time than human drivers due to more sensors that have a 360-degree view and computing speed.

TirednessGetting tired while driving is a common problem for most drivers — at least part of the time. This will never be a problem for AV software driver. There is little data on crashes where the cause is being tired.

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WeatherMost human drivers can handle a variety of weather situation and is currently better than AV software drivers. The main problem for human drivers is being over-confident in bad weather. Over-confidence often shows up on judgement whether to drive or not and not slowing down enough. This happens in snowy weather and flooded roads and too much speed in fog.

AV software drivers are current fair-weather drivers and need much more training to match the average human driver in bad weather. But AV software drivers should have better judgement on whether to drive in inclement weather.

These specs were created to be more specific to industrial control use cases than SP 800-82. They provide a flexible framework to mitigate the security vulnerabilities of industrial automation and control systems, both current and future.

Like SP 800-82, they’re designed to prevent danger to the public and employees, loss of public confidence, violation of regulatory requirements, IP theft, economic loss and national security attacks, and have become the basis of many industry-specific standards.

Matching the Purdue Model, they are hierarchical and split into four levels: General, Policies and Procedures, System and Component. Not all are published yet, but four in particular are worthy of highlighting: 62443-2-4 (policies for system integration); 62443-4-1 (requirements for a secure development lifecycle); 62443-4-2 (component security specifications); and 62443-3-3 (security requirements and levels).

The standards are detailed, representing requirements across the industrial control sector. Security requirements are outlined for each level to protect uptime, intellectual property and safety, with clear expectations for each stakeholder within the IIoT ecosystem. Individual vendors’ guidelines and industry-specific standards—for energy generation—are now typically based on 62443, translating relevant subsections to suit that industry’s language and protocols.

The UN Economic Commission for Europe’s Common Regulatory Framework on Cybersecurity has integrated ISA/IEC 62443, and the U.S. NIST SP 800-82 has been aligned with it.

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